I have ordered the table above by Geekbench 3 single-core results. Where information is missing, I make a best guess attempt to place it. It should be noted the Geekbench 2 results above are known to disadvantage Intel chips (maybe 5%). The Passmark benchmark is for x86 chips only.
Geekbench result for MediaTek MT8135 is from MediaTek.
Geekbench 3 results for Apple A7 are from:
Geekbench 3 results for Qualcomm Snapdragon 805 are from:
Geekbench 3 results for Clover Trail and Bay Trail are from:
Passmark results are from: http://www.passmark.com/
Especially when dealing with different architectures, take benchmarks with a grain of salt.
I include the Atom D525 here as it was commonly used in netbooks.
I include the Celeron 847 as it is the chip I consider minimal for running Windows, but decent for running Linux.
I include the Intel Pentium 2117U, Pentium 2127U, Celeron 1007U and the Intel Core i3-3217U as they are popular chips in laptops that actually sell. I consider a laptop in this range to be good enough for 80% or more of users.
The Tegra 3 is used in the Microsoft Surface RT and the ASUS Nexus 7 (2012).
The MediaTek MT6589 is used in many mid-level smartphones around the world.
The MediaTek MT8135 will be used in an upcoming entry-level Amazon Kindle Fire.
The Snapdragon S4 Pro is used in the ASUS Nexus 7 (2013).
The Exynos 5250 is used in the Samsung Chromebook and the Nexus 10 tablet.
The Apple A5, A6, A6X and A7 are in the iPad 2, iPhone 5, iPad 4th gen and iPhone 5S, respectively.
The Intel N2830 is used in the Acer C200 Chromebook that gets 12 hours of battery life.
The Intel 2955U is used in the HP 14 and Acer C720 Chromebooks.
The i5-3317U is used in the Microsoft Surface Pro.
The Haswell i5-4250U is used in the 2013 MacBook Air.
The Intel Haswell i7-4770K is the current flagship high-end desktop chip.